Advertising Thoughts, Copywriting, Marketing Thoughts, social media, Uncategorized

Why Seth Godin’s Rejection Email Was Better Than Most Acceptance Letters


Yesterday, my application to participate in Seth Godin’s summer seminar, “The Agenda Session” was denied. I would be lying if I said that I wasn’t a little sad, because (as a marketer who believes that the acts and voices of businesses and organizations can be used for good and profound work) Seth Godin is my hero. I wouldn’t say that I was shocked when I read my rejection email, however. Only 15 people are accepted to the session every year, a lot of people look up to Seth Godin, and my application was a bit rushed because I wanted to be among the first to apply. All that said, I kind of saw it coming. But one can always dream.

People get rejected all of the time. From jobs. From people. From colleges and universities. What’s the big deal?

What was remarkable about this rejection (yes, his rejection email was worthy of remark) was how touching it was. We’ve all read the We regret to inform you‘s and Unfortunately you were not selected‘s time and time again. And typically we stop reading after we interpret that first sentence to the full intention of the communication. Not only that, but when we receive these rejections, whether it’s in response to a college application, job application or marriage proposal, it leaves a bad taste in our mouth about the organization/person that rejected you. Maybe Microsoft said you wouldn’t be a great fit for that role, so the next computer you buy is a Mac. Maybe USC said their MBA program was full, so you start rooting for the Sun Devils. Yet Seth Godin (as he is one to do) turned the common rejection letter on its head and found a way to create a personal connection with me through a presumably negative interaction. His rejection email was more moving than most acceptance letters and phone calls that I’ve received in my 27 years on Earth. It felt personal. It felt honest. It felt like Seth had called me into his office, closed the door, and with a solemn expression told me why I wasn’t going to get that promotion. And it built in me an even deeper and more profound level of respect for Mr. Godin.

The point is that we as marketers, advertisers and communicators often miss opportunities to create a stronger connection and greater engagement in these kinds of situations. Of course, we are all wonderful at celebrating the good stuff. That’s the easy part. But if you really want to stand out, we need to consider every touch point an opportunity to win more trust and more loyalty. If brands are becoming more like people every day, then think of your brand in terms of your best friends and acquaintances. Your acquaintances love to chat with you about the good stuff, the big stuff, the Super Bowl, the raise, the wedding. But only your best friends will sit down and have an honest conversation about the layoff, the troubled marriage, the loss of a loved one, the rejection from your dream job. That’s the conversation Seth just had with me, via email. And I’m a more loyal fan than ever, now.


Advertising Thoughts, Marketing Thoughts, social media, Uncategorized

The Rise of Experiential: Marketing’s Next Evolutionary Step


Experiential marketing is exactly what it sounds like. And yet it is so much more than anything consumers and marketers have been able to grasp yet. But some are getting close. Indeed, experiential marketing and advertising is creating a new level of consumer interaction that goes beyond selling products to consumers, but guides them along a path that is intelligent, intuitive and, well, the next step in the evolution of marketing sales.

Read this brief selection out of Darrell Rigby’s groundbreaking Harvard Business Review article, The Future of Shopping to get a better idea of what I’m talking about…

“It’s a snowy Saturday in Chicago, but Amy, age 28, needs resort wear for a Caribbean vacation. Five years ago, in 2011, she would have headed straight for the mall. Today she starts shopping from her couch by launching a videoconference with her personal concierge at Danella, the retailer where she bought two outfits the previous month. The concierge recommends several items, superimposing photos of them onto Amy’s avatar. Amy rejects a couple of items immediately, toggles to another browser tab to research customer reviews and prices, finds better deals on several items at another retailer, and orders them. She buys one item from Danella online and then drives to the Danella store near her for the in-stock items she wants to try on. As Amy enters Danella, a sales associate greets her by name and walks her to a dressing room stocked with her online selections—plus some matching shoes and a cocktail dress. She likes the shoes, so she scans the bar code into her smartphone and finds the same pair for $30 less at another store. The sales associate quickly offers to match the price, and encourages Amy to try on the dress. It is daring and expensive, so Amy sends a video to three stylish friends, asking for their opinion. The responses come quickly: three thumbs down. She collects the items she wants, scans an internet site for coupons (saving an additional $73), and checks out with her smartphone. As she heads for the door, a life-size screen recognizes her and shows a special offer on an irresistible summer-weight top. Amy checks her budget online, smiles, and uses her phone to scan the customized Quick Response code on the screen. The item will be shipped to her home overnight.”

Decades ago, these ideas would have seemed to come from some futuristic novel or movie, but now they seem all too real. Consumers can receive mobile alerts from their favorite brands when an item they might enjoy goes on sale. If it’s close to lunch time, consumers might receive a text message when wander within a 100 foot proximity of a restaurant they like inside a shopping mall or casino. With modern technology like smart phones, tablets, interactive maps and more, experiential marketing almost seems like a natural step. But it actually began in the 90s, and has taken off ever since. Unfortunately, however, few companies have taken advantage of modern technology to develop experiential marketing and advertising to the full extent that they can.

Let’s take a step back and ask an important question: What exactly is experiential marketing? According to Tyler Lacoma of Demand Media in his article What Is Experiential Advertising, it “uses modern forms of communication and interactivity to approach marketing from a different, more personal angle. It combines salesmanship with the ability to connect with consumers and give them something to encounter and interact with, rather than just see or listen to.” With such a broad definition, experiential marketing could include a wide array of advertising tactics. Indeed, when a consumer buys something from and they begin to receive recommendations of other similar items that they might like, would that fall under experiential? Most likely, yes. Amazon is interacting with their consumer using prior behavior to help them find something else that they might like, while also garnering increased revenue for their company.


That said, what is it that experiential marketing brings to the table that traditional and even newer forms don’t, beyond Amazon’s consumer history product matching? It is the deeper level of interaction that consumers don’t just prefer, but crave. With the invention of the loudest communication tool in the history of the world, social media, consumers desire to connect on a deeper level with brands than ever before. They don’t just want to buy the latest pair of Nike shoes, they want to post pictures of them to show their friends. They want their Nike+ mobile application, which comes free with their shoes, to show all of their peers how they are using their latest pair of Nikes to set a new personal record at their next 5K. And they want it all to be intelligently streamlined and easy to use while offering exciting and cutting-edge interactive capabilities. It’s about developing not just buyers, but followers. No problem, right?

Well, yes and no. The problem is that developing these experiential campaigns isn’t cheap, and the companies that have the budget for them don’t necessarily have the inclination. If traditional advertising has worked in the past for these successful organizations, then why do they need to spend all that time and money when their standard mix of television, radio and print are working just fine? Hell, they spent close to a million dollars to develop a cutting-edge website, what more do consumers want? Of course, that isn’t always the case. Many forward thinking companies like Nike, Amazon and Apple understand the shifting landscape of modern marketing. But even the ones that have made the leap into this new era of advertising aren’t finding it all fun and games.

While experiential marketing seems to have a great deal of promise for a new era of consumerism and interactivity, there are (as always) going to be some downsides. These intelligent systems, like the ones described in The Future of Shopping are sure to lead to some Big Brother-esque fear of intrusion. Just how much is too much in terms of what a company knows about you? Or, how much communication is too much? Sure, the intelligent offerings created for our fictional character Amy were a blessing for her, as she clearly enjoys shopping and had a need for a product ASAP. But what about the millions of other consumers who give a bit of personal information at the register or online in order to get the initial 10% discount, but don’t want to be pestered every day about a new pair of shoes that just went on sale?

As the term “experiential marketing” indicates, those who are participating are creating a unique brand experience. It makes the buying process easier, more intuitive and more fun for their consumers. But like any new paradigm, there will certainly be kinks to work out. Not everyone who buys a pair of Nike shoes wants to be part of that community. Maybe they just want to go for a jog in peace. So there will be trial and error, of course. The right experience needs to match the right brand, and perhaps even more importantly, the right consumer. The last thing we can do is assume that everyone wants to join the cult of your company. Many will. Others won’t. And that’s okay. But either way, this is a very exciting new level of marketing that we should all be considering in our next campaign.

Advertising Thoughts, Marketing Thoughts, social media, Uncategorized

Why Red Bull’s Advertising Makes Me Want to Jump Off a Mountain (In a Good Way)

We all remember those old Red Bull television commercials. You know the ones I’m talking about. Shaky cartoon. Innuendos everywhere. Odd banter between strange characters. And the fact that we remember them speaks highly of the advertising, or budget, or both, of Red Bull. But over the last few years, Red Bull has somehow managed to make a fluid transition from cheesy oddball commercials to extreme, life-inspired viral videos that have swept the world off its feet. Their new video efforts have even earned them comparisons with the glory days of Nike advertising. Indeed, Red Bull has made its way from corny side conversation to extreme sports enthusiast. We see Felix Baumgartner plastered in Red Bull gear leaping from space. We see people in squirrel suites (so I’m told they are called) zoom mere feet above the sharp treeline of a tall mountain. We see surfers thrashing across perilous waves. And you know what? It’s actually really cool. My wife may kill me, but I think I’m going to have to try that “squirrel suit” jump in the near future.

Type “Red Bull advertising” into Google and you’ll get results like Red Bull as Adweek’s Ad of the Day, a Mashable article entitled “How Red Bull Takes Content Marketing to the Extreme” and AdAge talking about a Red Bull video catapulting to the top of the chart. AdAge even named Red Bull’s historic 120,000 foot free fall from space video as the best integrated campaign of 2012. But why did this transition happen?  And has their strategy worked?

After doing some digging, I learned that the “cartoon” advertisements that we all knew and, well, maybe liked, had been aired “for 23 years in 160 countries” (Beuker, 2010). Red Bull had been sponsoring extreme sports for quite some time as well, but their brand identity did not really reflect that. Enter: The digital age. In a Fast Company article by Teressa Iezzi that ranks the Red Bull Media House as the world’s 29th most innovative company, Iezzi describes how Red Bull was able to capitalize on their vast knowledge of extreme sports by creating videos and selling them online. But it wasn’t until they realized that this extreme sports lifestyle was really the DNA of their brand that they made the decision to transition their advertising away from the cornball cartoon ads, and more in the direction of Nike-esque advertising.

And has it paid off? According to Yahoo Finance, Red Bull maintains a 40% market share in what is understood as one of America’s fastest growing industries (projected 86% growth over the next five years). But what’s more important is how ingrained this company has become in the very extreme culture it has supported for so many years. Oh, and let’s not forget the huge revenues they are making off of these amazing videos. According to Iezzi, they spent just $2 million on a video that went on to reign “atop iTunes’s sports, documentary, and overall movie sales charts for a week, at $10 a pop” (2012).

So what do you think? In my opinion, Red Bull is the coolest energy drink company in the world. But, I also drink a combination of Rockstars and Mosters on a near daily basis. To be honest, I haven’t had a Red Bull in years. So is a positive opinion as important as an actual sale? Has Red Bull’s immersion into extreme culture through iconic videos and historically extreme events (think 120,000 foot free fall) persuaded you to buy a Red Bull? Or, perhaps more importantly, has it changed your image about their brand? Something is obviously working for them. All I know is I love their marketing.

Oh, and for old time’s sake, here’s one of the cartoon style Red Bull ads, which they are still coming out with from time to time.

Advertising Thoughts, Commentary, Copywriting, Marketing Thoughts

The Art of Perception

I was fortunate very early in my career to learn a great lesson about a simple, yet extraordinary phenomenon called perception. I had been out of college for about two years and was still honing my craft as a copywriter. I had even become confident enough in my abilities to add that title to my resume without ever having gone to … Portfolio School (gasp!).

I was lucky. But to tell this story fully, I must, indeed, go back two more years. I landed an internship at a good agency just a few months after graduating from a state university in the generic concentration of Advertising. The internship wasn’t on the creative side. I was actually mostly working on research and coffee runs for the account team. But, when I told them why I was really there, they gave me a shot, I impressed them with a few headlines, and the rest is history.

Now, back to the original story. It’s already starting to feel a little too Midsummer Night’s Dream in here, anyway. I was a full-fledged copywriter with a couple of years and recommendations under my belt, and a friend of mine was interested in putting my skills to use. This person worked at another advertising agency. This person was not a copywriter. But, this person had been asked to write a newsletter for one of their clients. This person, in turn, asked for my help.

I wouldn’t be paid for this, because this person wanted their agency to think that they wrote the piece, thus “wowing” their clients and superiors, winning the Most Awesome award and being carried out of the office on the shoulders of their peers for having the amazing ability to both write and account exec (Ya, I’m using “account exec” as a verb).

I didn’t mind. Hell, at that stage in my career, any chance to hone my skill was an opportunity I would jump at. Now, of course, I still would, but there’s usually going to be a price tag attached.

So I wrote it. It took me about five hours. But I wrote it. And guess what happened. This person’s superiors hated it.The page bled in edits. Red replaced black as the majority. Scribble superseded Times New Roman.

This person asked me, “What happened?” I said I didn’t know. I thought it was good. Maybe not my greatest work ever (Does anyone love writing newsletters, after all?), but it certainly should have done the job for a newsletter that would likely be read by a subscribing audience of no more than seven.

So the edits were made. The superiors were satisfied when few of the original words on the document remained. The clients were satisfied when the superiors advocated it. And everyone was happy. Except, this was a monthly newsletter. This process was going to come around in another 30 days. And what then?

Well, I had done some freelance work for this agency in the past. I was currently working at an internal marketing department for a very niche product, so there was absolutely no conflict of interest … Just in case you were wondering. Ironically, the agency reached out to me the following month to write the succeeding five page newsletter. The same young copywriter that they had thrashed and stained in red the month prior. I hesitantly agreed, knowing that this was an opportunity to learn and grow. And make some extra money, of course.

So I wrote it. Again. And again, it took me about five hours. And you know what happened this time? They loved it. A resounding, unanimous acceptance, without edits, of the golden god of newsletters. It was perfection in local publishing. It was heaven on paper. I could hear the applause from my office on the other side of the city. No edits needed. No changes required. A masterpiece. They showed my friend, the one who had initially solicited my help, stating “This is how a newsletter is supposed to be written.”

I am sure that a small part of that person wanted to spill the beans, if not walk from superior to superior kicking everyone in the  “beans”. But I think at that moment, this person realized the same lesson I learned when I got the news. Perception means a whole hell of a lot.

I pride myself on learning from past mistakes, writing or otherwise. But there is no way that over the course of one month, I could have gone from writing a newsletter that was about one more edit away from becoming garbage, to a beacon on which all other newsletter should strive to resemble. The decision-makers of this ad agency saw the first newsletter and were prepared to see a flood of writing errors and missed voice attributes, because it was coming from someone without specific experience in copywriting. And because that is what they expected, or perceived, they found the errors they were looking for, and then some. A self-fulfilling prophecy.

When they looked at the second newsletter, they expected a certain level of greatness. One, because it was coming from a copywriter, not one of their Account people. And two, because they paid a freelance fee for it, and wanted to validate their expense.

Perception means everything in the world of consumer marketing and advertising, as well as B2B. What does your customer think of your company and does what you are saying about your company match up with their perception? “Think Different” worked for Apple, because they had always portrayed themselves as the outlier to the corporate big brother of IBM and Microsoft. “Just Do It” worked for Nike because their customers are athletes, and that’s exactly what they want to do, and need to be told sometimes. But if you were just another clothing store on the corner, “Just Do It” and “Think Different” would make no sense, and a pair of the greatest taglines ever would have been wasted.

I’ll give you another example. Stephen King, the world’s most renowned horror author of all time was rejected by over 30 publishers before someone decided to back Carrie. King went on to a successful career that continues to horrify and captivate audiences, from paperback to big screen to Amazon Kindle tablets. But for a brief period, King wanted to find out if he really was as good as people thought he was, or if it had all just been a fluke, and was now being carried by his name alone, and not his quality. So, he penned novels under the name Richard Bachman. The secret didn’t last long, but King found, much to his delight, that he sold nearly as well, and the quality of his writing was, at least in large part, the reason for his continued success. But, it was the perception of his fans that he wanted to test. And it could have just as easily failed. If it had, it would have proven my point in a much stronger fashion, but you get where I’m going with it.

Cool begets cooler. Smart begets smarter. Fun begets excitement. Building perception in a forward direction is like rolling a rock downhill. As long as your product, and the perception of your consumer matches up, your success will be imminent (as long as that perception isn’t shitty).

Shifting perception is another beast altogether. Volvo is still considered the safest line of automobiles in the world, when, in fact, they are no longer even ranked in the top ten, as far as safety is concerned. But I won’t get into that right now. Shifting perception, as I said, is a whole other beast.

Just remember the importance of perception. It affects everything. You. Your brand(s). Your work. Your friends. Your family. Find a way to use it to your advantage, and realize when it is working against you. Once you take perception into account, you’ll find a lot of formerly unanswerable questions become much simpler.

Advertising Thoughts, Marketing Thoughts

The Importance of Advertising Tag Lines

The 10 Best Slogans of All Time

Everyone loves a good quote. Seriously. Whether it’s wisdom being passed on in the form of an eloquent phrase, “As iron sharpens iron, so one man sharpens another” (Proverbs 27:17), a funny statement, “No brains, no headaches,” (Zach Galifianakis, Out Cold), or something that may not even necessarily mean anything to you, but simply sounds cool, like “Ay carumba!” (Bart Simpson) For the record, I know that last one is used in a state of shock in the Spanish language, but I’m guessing most Americans who say it have no idea what it means.

Quotes are a huge part of every day life. From the advertising tag line to the Facebook update. Speaking of which, with the advent of social media channels, such as Facebook, Twitter, Myspace, etc, quotes have become more popular than ever, being passed along through updates, posts, comments and tweets.

As an advertising copywriter, your goal (and mine) is to create one of these marvelous one-liners that resonates with people in such a way that not only does your catch-phrase, tag line, or slogan come to the mind of your consumer when they see your brand, but that your same line is thought about during every day life when the right emotion is struck, whether your brand is there or not. It should evoke emotion, whether it is playful, humorous, pensive, thoughtful or even frightening, a la Michelin’s, “Because so much is riding on your tires”. Now that’s one hell of a phrase. I don’t have kids yet and I can already tell that when I do, and I pack my minivan full of my loved ones, that phrase will pass through my mind. And maybe I’ll buy four of Michelin’s best tires. Maybe I won’t. But the point is that they are on my mind in a situation that I normally wouldn’t be thinking about tires or safety.

Tag lines are fun when done correctly. But it’s not all just sitting with your feet up in a conference room throwing a football back and forth with your partner until lightning strikes. There is research that must be done. There is strategy that must be followed. There is understanding that must be found. Once you find that little piece of a company that stands out from the rest . . . just one little piece that makes it better, stronger, more interesting, sexier, more appealing, whatever . . . once you’ve found that, then it’s just semantics. Find the right way to say that little diamond in the rough that you’ve uncovered. Because every company’s got something.

Hell, Avis found their differentiator by looking at market share. “At Avis, we’re #2, so we try harder!” I’d like to meet the genius who said, “Let’s tell everyone that we’re #2!” Honestly. It’s brilliant! I’d also be really interested to see the initial reaction of the creative director when that copywriter pitched it. And of Avis’ marketing team when their ad agency pitched the idea to them. But it worked. It was an amazing idea and a unique campaign. And it was all because they didn’t half-ass their strategy session by talking about the same old rental car topics. They could have said, “Well, we have a huge selection of cars. And our people are nice. Our prices are very fair too!” But they looked beyond the typical Sunday newspaper quarter-page ad copy and found something that made their brand stand out. But what happens if that campaign works too well? If they get to #1, they’ve gotta restart everything?

I digress.

My point is that tag lines are the most fun, creative, and rewarding thing an advertising copywriter can create. It’s your opportunity to put a stamp on someone else’s brand. Marking your territory, at least for a while. But again, it’s not just spit-balling. It takes time, effort, and real dedication to create your messaging strategy. But once that is in place, get creative! Create something that people will quote on Facebook for years to come!

Make it count!

Advertising Thoughts, Marketing Thoughts

Humans: A Life in Sales

Many times in life, it’s not necessarily about having a great deal of worth, but being able to eloquently elaborate on the worth you possess. In fact, most of your life will be spent trying to sell yourself, without necessarily trying to better yourself, whether you are trying to sell your charm and manliness to get the girl, sell your accomplishments to your boss to get a raise, getting the job in the first place by selling your abilities during the interview, or selling yourself as the alpha male to your friends.

I work in the advertising and marketing industry as a copywriter, so I live and breathe sales. Making one product sound better than another has become second nature to me. Whether the one product is superior to the other is irrelevant at this point, because what will truly make the sale is how good our website looks, how often our brand communicates with you, the consumer, and how eloquent we are when we tell you about ourselves. The quality of the product is more of an afterthought.

I mean, come on. I know I’m going to take a lot of flack for this from the die-hard fans, but please oh please tell me the difference between Nike and Reebok. There may be a very, very slight style difference. I believe I’ve heard the level of comfort as a factor from time to time, as well. But come on, who gives a shit? It’s a sneaker. The only thing you are doing is playing into that sales pitch that these two brands have been throwing at you for years. I guess I wouldn’t really know, though. I wear Sketchers . . .

And the same things happen in life. Growing up, you’ll see guys get girls that you want because they are “smoother” and sell themselves well. You’ll see coworkers get promotions ahead of you because they constantly tell their boss about what a great job they are doing. It’s do-or-die out there right now, and those that are doing are the ones who are selling.

We’ve reached a new level of evolution in our species, where it doesn’t just pay to be the best; you have to be able to convince everyone else that you are the best as well, even if you’re not.

I’ve always preferred the idea of letting your actions speak for you. If you’re good enough, you shouldn’t have to talk about it. But look at Muhammad Ali. Son of a bitch walked and talked with the best of them. But then you can look at Matt Hasselbeck in the playoff overtime loss to the Green Bay Packers. When Hasselbeck and the Seahawks won the coin toss in overtime, Hasselbeck said, “We want the ball cuz we’re gonna score.” Well, just a few plays into the drive, Hasselbeck threw an interception, which the Packers ran back for a touchdown, eliminating the Seahawks from the playoffs. Woops. Guess that one didn’t quite pan out, did it?

Being a confident salesman is similar to being a good gambler. Every time you put your product out there, you are also putting yourself out there . . . All of yourself. So, if it works out well, you reap bigger rewards than the guy who quietly works hard (the equivalent to the guy only putting down a few chips every turn). But, when it falls through, you lose a lot more than the guy who quietly makes a mistake. If you are a good salesman, however, you should be able to find a way out of your predicament, because truth be told, you’re bet isn’t always going to work out.

So that’s all; Just kind of a perspective on mankind’s life of sales. Think about it the next time you want something, because unless you are really rich, incredibly good looking or have the power to use Jedi mind tricks, you are going to have to sell yourself in one way or another. Should it be that way? Or should we let the quality of people and products speak for themselves? Who knows. I’m in advertising so I root for the former.

Advertising Thoughts, Commentary, Marketing Thoughts

The Personalization of Advertising

In an Exponentially Growing World, Advertising is Curiously Becoming More Personal

Imagine it is 1905 and you’re on a street corner with a tiny stage set up in front of you.  A man with a wildly flamboyant mustache steps up and starts shouting over the crowd that he’s got a one of a kind product that no one can miss out on.  People ask him questions and he simply dismisses them with a few glittering generalities . . . and like magic, everyone pulls out their cash and begs for the product.

Wake up . . . it’s 2009.

The days of brands metaphorically, or literally, standing on a soapbox and shouting a one-way message at the consumer is over.  Now the roles have been reversed.  Your brand needs to have something interesting and relevant to say when the consumer decides that they will give you some of their time . . . and if you don’t “wow” them right off the bat with believable, emotional and personal information, they’ll move on and both you and your product will be left in the digital gutter.

More and more, brands have become a personification of themselves through the use and implementation of social and interactive media.  But rather than shouting loudspeaker messages, the good ones have become more conversational, relevant, and downright friendly.

Remember that friend you have that walks into a party and just starts shouting.  Everyone looks, but is generally annoyed.  Then you’ve got the other friend, who walks in quietly and confidently, but can sit down, crack a beer, and talk, personally, about what is going on in the world today.  By the end of the night, everyone knows they guy who’s shouting about how drunk he is but they all hate him.  Maybe less people know they guy who’s had a few really interesting conversations, but the people who met him will keep him in mind for their next party.  Brands need to be that guy.

“9 out of 10 dentists recommend it” isn’t gonna cut it anymore . . . I’m sorry.  But if 9 out of 10 friends recommend it, that’s a different story. It’s a game of sociability and believability.  Brands can’t merely spout off about how great their product is; they have to ask you what you like about them, and what you don’t like.  They have to befriend you and gain your trust.  And eventually, once all the pleasantries are out of the way, maybe you’ll buy.

That’s just the way it is now.  People were worried about the lack of personalization that would ensue from the growth of the internet, worried that it would yield a cold, desolate web-space where no one would want or need to interact anymore.  I think we can all put that theory away for now.  As social creatures we would never allow ourselves to be so utterly confined.  And that’s what we need to remember in advertising.